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 definition of Grammar Terms تعريف مفردات القواعد

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مُساهمةموضوع: definition of Grammar Terms تعريف مفردات القواعد   الجمعة مايو 30, 2008 10:19 pm



definition of Grammar Terms

تعريف مفردات القواعد..




اللكنه
accent


1: an articulative effort giving prominence to one syllable over adjacent syllables. 2: a mark used in writing or printing to indicate a specific sound value, stress, or pitch, to distinguish words otherwise identically spelled, or to indicate that an ordinarily mute vowel should be pronounced. People with different accents might use an accent mark to indicate they accent a different syllable.



الصيغة المعلوم

active


asserting that the person or thing represented by the grammatical subject performs the action represented by the verb. In the last sentence, the subject "person or thing" performs the action "perform", so the sentence is in the active voice.


active voice

صوت نشط


In the active voice, the subject of the verb does the action.


adjective
نعت



a word that serves as a modifier of a noun to denote a quality of the thing named, to indicate its quantity or extent, or to specify a thing as distinct from something else. It answers the questions "which?", "how many?", and "what kind of?", etc.


adverb

الظرف


A word like slowly, quietly, well, often etc. An adverb modifies a verb.



apposition

بدل


a grammatical construction in which two typically adjacent nouns referring to the same person or thing stand in the same syntactical relation to the rest of a sentence. For example, in "the rally of the opposition Labor Party", "Labor Party" is in apposition with "opposition".



article

بَنْد, فِقْرَة, مَادَّة


The "indefinite" articles are a and an. The "definite article" is the.




assimilation

اِسْتِيعاب



the process of conforming one sound to another to aid in pronunciation. For example, in the phrase "in Colorado", the "n" in "in" becomes palatalized because of the following "C".



auxiliary verb
فعل مساعد



A verb that is used with a main verb. Be, do and have are auxiliary verbs. Can, may, must etc are modal auxiliary verbs.



case

حَالَة


an inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or adjective indicating its grammatical relation to other words.



clause
ماده , بند


A group of words containing a subject and its verb (for example: It was late when he arrived).



comparative

مقارن


the degree of comparison in a language that denotes increase in the quality, quantity, or relation expressed by an adjective or adverb.




complement

تَتِمَّة, تَكْمِلَة


an added word or expression by which a predicate is made complete. For example, "president" and "beautiful" are complements in "they elected him president" and "he thought her beautiful".


compound subject

مجمع الموضوع


a subject joined together with a conjunction. "Or" or "and" can join together the nouns or clauses. The preceding sentence has a compound subject.



conjugate

صرفي,, يصرف أفعال


to give in prescribed order the various inflectional forms of something. It is used especially of a verb, in which case it means to give the forms for every person, number, mood, and tense.




conjunction

حَرْفُ عَطْف, أَدَاةُ عَطْف, حَرْف


A word used to connect words, phrases and clauses (for example: and, but, if).



diaeresis

العلامه اللاتينية


two dots placed side-by-side over a vowel. The two dots can have one of two meanings: (1) the vowel is considered a separate vowel, even though it would normally be considered part of a diphthong, or (2) you need to have the paten of your laser printer cleaned. A diaeresis is indicated by a percent sign (%) in these lessons.



digraph

مجموعة من حرفين متتاليين



a series of two letters that constitute a single sound not predicted by combining the two letters.




diphthong
ادغام



a gliding monosyllabic speech item that starts at or near the articulatory position for one vowel and moves to or toward the position for another (as the vowel combination that forms the last part of toy).


direct object

وجوه المباشر


a noun or noun phrase representing the primary goal or the result of the action of its verb. For example, "direct objects" is the direct object of the sentence "I explained direct objects to you".



modal verb

فعل شِكْلِيّ,,, فعل مَشْرُوط



An auxiliary verb like can, may, must etc that modifies the main verb and expresses possibility, probability etc. It is also called "modal auxiliary verb".



mood

حالة نفسية



a particular set of inflectional forms of a verb to express whether the action or state it denotes is conceived as fact or in some other manner (as command, possibility, or wish).



epenthetic

added to aid in pronunciation.


equative

the degree of comparison in a language that denotes the same quality, quantity, or relation expressed by an adjective or adverb.



gender

الجنس


a quality attached to a noun or pronoun that indicates an abstract category of the individuals are being referred to. Most English nouns are neuter, and English has singular pronouns that are masculine, feminine, and neuter ("he", "she", and "it", respectively).




indicative

الارشاديه,, الدال على


a set of verb forms that represents the denoted act or state as an objective fact. Most of our speech is in the indicative mood, like this sentence.



indirect object

وجوه غير المباشره



a grammatical object representing the secondary goal of the action of its verb. For example, "me" is the indirect object of the sentence "He gave me an example of indirect objects".



infinitive

مصدر,, صيغة المصدر



The basic form of a verb as in to work or work.




interjection

اقحام


An exclamation inserted into an utterance without grammatical connection.



intransitive verb

الفعل اللازم


a verb that does not act on an object. For example, "lobby" is intransitive in the sentence "I lobby for intransitive verbs".



noun
إسم



a word that is the name of something (as a person, animal, place, thing, quality, idea, or action). All of the nouns in this definition are emphasized.



number

رقم



a quality attached to a noun or pronoun that indicates a category of how many individuals are being referred to.



object

المفعول به, مفعول


In the active voice, a noun or its equivalent that receives the action of the verb. In the passive voice, a noun or its equivalent that does the action of the verb.




part of speech

جزء من كلمة


One of the eight classes of word in English - noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction and interjection.




participle

النعت الفعلي ,,اسم الفاعل


The -ing and -ed forms of verbs. The -ing form is called the "present participle". The -ed form is called the "past participle"



particle
حَرْف



a unit of speech expressing some general aspect of meaning or some connective or limiting relation. It can be an article, a preposition or conjunction, or possibly an interjection or adverb.



passive

سلبى


asserting that the person or thing represented by the grammatical subject is subjected to or affected by the action represented by the verb. In the last sentence, the subject "person or thing" is acted upon by the verbs "subject" and "affect", so the sentence is in the passive voice.



passive voice
المبني للمجهول


In the passive voice, the subject receives the action of the verb (eg The President was killed). See also Active Voice.


penult

جزء قبل الأخير


the next-to-last syllable of a word. Every time I use a "pen", it is the penult of "penult".



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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: definition of Grammar Terms تعريف مفردات القواعد   الجمعة مايو 30, 2008 10:20 pm






perfect
تام ,, كامل



a tense of a verb that indicates an action has been completed in the past. "I have been perfected" is in the perfect tense.


person
شخص


a segment of discourse that pertains to the speaker (first person), to the one spoken to (second person), or the one spoken of (third person). The singular prounouns in English that are first person, second person, and third person are respectively "I", "you", and any of "he", "she", or "it"



personal pronoun
الشخصيه ضمير


any pronoun that refers to a noun by person and number.



phrase

عباره


A group of words not containing a subject and its verb (eg on the table, the girl in a red dress).



plural
جمع


a class of grammatical forms used to denote more than one of some noun or pronoun.




possessive

دال على الملكية


a grammatical case that denotes ownership or a relation analogous to ownership. For example, in "owner's manual", the owner is possessive.



predicate
يبني رأياً



Each sentence contains (or implies) two parts: a subject and a predicate. The predicate is what is said about the subject.




preposition
حرف جرّ


A word like at, to, in, over etc. Prepositions usually come before a noun and give information about things like time, place and direction.


prepositional phrase

جر العبارة


A phrase that starts with a preposition.




present
حَاضِر


a tense of a verb that indicates an ongoing action. "I am present" is in the present tense.



pronoun
ضَمِير



A word like I, me, you, he, him, it etc. A pronoun replaces a noun.


proper noun

اسم السليم ,, اسم ملائم


a name belonging to an individual or place. For example, "Sam" and "Cleveland" are proper nouns.



relative clause
فقره نسبيه .. جمله نسبيه


a dependent clause in apposition with a substantive for the purpose of specifying it. For example, "who works for my father" is the relative clause in the sentence "The man who works for my father is here."



sentence
جمله



A group of words that express a thought. A sentence conveys a statement, question, exclamation or command. A sentence contains or implies a subject and a predicate. In simple terms, a sentence must contain a verb and (usually) a subject. A sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop (.), question mark (?) or exclamation mark (!).



singular
مفرد


the form of a pronoun or noun used to reference an object that occurs singly, alone, one-at-a-time, or without any others of its kind around it. For example, "hermit" only occurs in the singular.



subject

فاعل


Every sentence contains (or implies) two parts: a subject and a predicate. The subject is the main noun (or equivalent) in a sentence about which something is said.


subjunctive
اِحْتِمَالي, شَرْطِيّ


a set of verb forms that would represent a denoted act or state not as fact but as contingent or possible or viewed emotionally (as with doubt or desire). The "would" in the last sentence makes its mood subjunctive.



superlative

ذُرْوَة




the degree of grammatical comparison that denotes an extreme or unsurpassed level or extent.



syllable
مقطع لفظي


a unit of spoken language that is next bigger than a speech sound. It consists of one or more vowel sounds alone or of a syllabic consonant alone or of either with one or more consonant sounds preceding or following.




tense
توتر




The form of a verb that shows us when the action or state happens (past, present or future). Note that the name of a tense is not always a guide to when the action happens. The "present continuous tense", for example, can be used to talk about the present or the future.



transitive verb
فعل متعدى ,, فعل إنتقالي



a verb that can act upon an object. One might say that a transitive verb is one that is object-oriented.




ultima
المقطع الأخير



the last syllable of a word. "Ma" is the ultima of "ultima"



verb
فعل


A word like (to) work, (to) love, (to) begin. A verb describes an action or state.



voice
صَوْت


a system of inflections of a verb to indicate the relation of the subject of the verb to the action which the verb expresses. English has two voices: active and passive.





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definition of Grammar Terms تعريف مفردات القواعد
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